The Representation of Industry in the Canadian Census, 1871-1891
AbstractThe author investigates the representation of industrial activity and the industrial establishment in the Canadian censuses from 1871 to 1891. Published and unpublished materials reveal that an explicit definition of industrial activity successfully guided the enumeration and tabulation of the census data, although difficulties were encountered with domestic production and multi-purpose establishments. The information recorded by enumerators reveals the presence of a large number of firms operating more than one industrial process in the same or closely adjacent buildings, particularly where water power was available. A reexamination of the census manuscript evidence indicates that industrial establishments were more numerous and their total output in 1871 larger than has been recognized previously.